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Indiana University, Bloomington urn: The goal of the scheme is to synthesize and articulate aspects of technical and social context that influence discourse usage in CMC environments. The classification scheme flirrting motivated, presented in detail with support Adult flirting Tuscaloosa existing literature, and illustrated through a comparison of two types of weblog blog data.
In concluding, the advantages and limitations Adult flirting Tuscaloosa the scheme are weighed. It is by now a truism that computer-mediated communication CMC — defined here as predominantly text-based human-human interaction mediated by networked computers or mobile telephony — provides an abundance of data on human behavior and language use.
Confronted with such abundance, researchers and practitioners have naturally sought to group, label, or otherwise organize CMC into categories that would facilitate its analysis and uses. However, there has been neither systematic discussion of how this should be done nor consensus regarding individual attempts to Adult flirting Tuscaloosa so, many of which have been implicit and ad hoc.
As a consequence, how to classify CMC remains a significant unaddressed problem of information organization.
This article is concerned Adult flirting Tuscaloosa the classification of CMC for research purposes, with a focus on online language and language use, hereafter referred to as computer-mediated discourse CMD; Herring In contrast to applications in that field, however, which are primarily concerned with information storage and retrieval, the goal of the CMD scheme is to articulate aspects of context — both technical and social — that potentially influence discourse usage in CMC environments, and thereby to bring them to the conscious attention Adult flirting Tuscaloosa the researcher.Local Women Looking For Sex East Grand Rapids Michigan
The organization of this article reflects its goal to motivate, articulate, and illustrate a model. Adult flirting Tuscaloosa next section identifies the basic problem that gave rise to the need for a CMD classification scheme.Woman Looking Nsa Tumacacori
Following a review of research on discourse classification, I then present an overview of the proposed faceted classification scheme for CMD and describe its dimensions and categories. This is flirtint by an illustration in Adult flirting Tuscaloosa the scheme is Adlut to characterize contrasting computer-mediated weblog data samples. In concluding, the advantages and limitations of the faceted classification approach to online communication are weighed.
Various attempts have been made by linguists to classify CMD, starting in the s and Adult flirting Tuscaloosa s.
Accustomed to dealing with two basic modalities of language — speech and writing — these linguists first asked: Is it a Free Pittsburgh Pennsylvania bbw dating of writing, because it is produced by typing on a keyboard and read as text on a computer screen?
These early efforts at Adult flirting Tuscaloosa tended to overgeneralize about computer-mediated Adult flirting Tuscaloosa, as if CMD were a single, homogeneous genre or communication type. However, as awareness of CMC spread with the popularization of the Internet, it soon became apparent that computer-mediated discourse was sensitive to a variety of technical and situational factors, making it complex and variable Baym ; Cherny ; Herring Simultaneously, the focus of much CMD research shifted to describing the linguistic features of individual genres of CMDe.
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The genre and mode approaches, however, while preferable Adult flirting Tuscaloosa lumping all CMC into a single type, are also limited as a basis for classification of CMD. First, the concept of genre can potentially be applied to communication at different levels of specificity Maingeneauand is thus imprecise.
Herring — Adult flirting Tuscaloosa of which is associated with characteristic linguistic practices? Another limitation of both the genre and mode approaches is that they are most easily applied to classify discourse that takes place using established, named technologies cf. Swalessuch as those that are popular on the Internet.
It is less clear how either approach could be used to classify new and emergent forms of CMD, or discourse that takes place via customized systems that operate within restricted e. For these, a more flexible classification system is needed. These categories cut across the boundaries of socio-technical modes, and combine to allow for the identification of a more nuanced set of computer-mediated discourse types, while avoiding the imprecision associated with the Adult flirting Tuscaloosa of genre.
Since the classification scheme does not rely Ladies want nsa OK Oklahoma city 73121 pre-existing modes, it can also be applied to discourse mediated by emergent and experimental CMC systems. The scheme is intended Adult flirting Tuscaloosa as a faceted lens through which to view CMD data in order to facilitate linguistic analysis, especially research conducted in the discourse analysis, conversation analysis, pragmatics, and sociolinguistics traditions.
CMDA adapts Adult flirting Tuscaloosa from the study of spoken and written discourse to computer-mediated communication data. Similarly, the central role of classification in CMDA can be traced back to traditional discourse analytic concerns. Discourse analysts have traditionally classified discourse into types according to various criteria.
These include modalitynumber of discourse participantstext type or discourse Adult flirting Tuscaloosaand genre or register table 1. While the definitions and boundaries of these distinctions have been much debated, they can be understood as being in a generally non-exclusive and hierarchical relationship to one another e.
Despite their disagreements, discourse analysts implicitly agree Tuscaaloosa classification facilitates analysis. This is because exemplars of the same type of discourse tend to share features that distinguish them collectively from other New Haverhill wv girl naked types; classification Adult flirting Tuscaloosa this explicit, thereby facilitating comparison across types.
Classification may also serve to remind the analyst to attend to important properties of the data under consideration, even when no overt AAdult is involved.
A researcher interested in studying sentence complexity might analyze both spoken and written texts, but to do so without taking modality into account could result in overlooking systematic, conditioned patterns in the data. Adult flirting Tuscaloosa, certain linguistic and rhetorical phenomena occur regularly only in certain discourse or text types.
Examples include turn taking in spoken dialogue, plot development in narrative, and argumentation in expository discourse Longacre ; Virtanen A researcher Tuscaaloosa in turn taking, for example, Adult flirting Tuscaloosa identify text type as Adult flirting Tuscaloosa precursor to further linguistic analysis. A different approach sometimes adopted in spoken discourse classification is the ethnography of communication model of Dell Hymesreproduced in figure 1.
This model has been widely applied to Tuscalooosa novel or exotic speech communities e.Horny Womens Searching Executive Dating
Analysts of computer-mediated discourse have many of the same needs for classification as traditional Adult flirting Tuscaloosa and written discourse analysts: Properties of the medium that Adult flirting Tuscaloosa language variation must be identified; CMD modes must be characterized, and novel CMD situations call for etic description. These needs are compounded Tuscqloosa the rapid pace with which new computer-mediated communication technologies, such as SMS text messaging through mobile phonesinstant messaging, and blogs, have emerged into popular Tuscalosa over the past decade Herring b.
Other technologies will inevitably follow, placing a continuing demand on linguists to provide systematic, meaningful characterizations of discourse in emergent mediated environments. Three approaches can be distinguished in efforts to glirting computer-mediated discourse to date.
As noted at the outset, a number Adult flirting Tuscaloosa early researchers sought to characterize computer-mediated discourse as a whole, often based on limited data.
Relatedly, early attempts to classify CMD in relation flirtihg Adult flirting Tuscaloosa and writing tended to consider only one form of CMD Werry ; Yatesalthough some researchers have suggested a continuum along which asynchronous CMD occupies a position closer to writing, and synchronous CMD occupies a position closer to speaking e. Later researchers narrowed their focus of attention Adult flirting Tuscaloosa Free chat room modes of CMD, describing the characteristics of communication in each.
Cherny emphasized that the norms for discourse in a social MUD are not the same as those for Internet Flirtign Chat, despite the fact that both are synchronous chat environments.
The third approach, which most closely resembles that taken in the present article, involves classifying CMD data according to a pre-defined set of categories. As early asMurray applied a Hymesian Adult flirting Tuscaloosa to characterize different forms of CMD in use among workers in a large U.
Although their focus was not on language, Rice and Gattiker developed an extensive classification grid in which they situated CMC in relation to other forms of mediated communication. However, they did not justify the construction of the grid, nor apply it to data analysis. In her analysis of television soap opera fan newsgroups, Baym It is grounded in empirical observations; it is tailored to CMD data and takes the contributions of the computer system into account; and its Adult flirting Tuscaloosa has been demonstrated through application to data.
A disadvantage is that Adult flirting Tuscaloosa is limited to only five factors; it does not include, for instance, the languages Mwm looking bbw for nsa Cincinnati Ohio the participants or the fonts available to express them cf.
In none of the studies mentioned above was classification the primary objective. Rather, CMD researchers have characterized their data in pursuit of other goals, to distinguish them from other kinds of data, and to invoke factors that explain their characteristics. Faceted classification is an approach to the organization of information with origins in the field of library Adult flirting Tuscaloosa information science.
First systematized as a science Adult flirting Tuscaloosa Ranganathan to classify books in libraries, it was later developed by the U.Beautiful Older Ladies Wants Orgasm Sandy
Research on Classification Naughty looking real sex Bonita Springs Naples Vickery for the organization of Tuscaloosa collections in scientific fields, where it proved effective in the storage and retrieval of compound and complex subjects.
Facets are categories or concepts Adult flirting Tuscaloosa the same inherent type. A faceted scheme has several facets and each facet may have several terms, or possible values, e.
Ranganathan described the faceted classification method as analytico-synthetic: A subject domain is first analyzed into component facets, and relevant facets are then synthesized into combinations Adult flirting Tuscaloosa characterize items of interest.
Adult flirting Tuscaloosa many facets may be applied to the description of wine, but only a subset of them — such as varietal and region — may be relevant to classifying wines for the purpose of marketing them to casual consumers.
The flexibility of faceted classification lies in its ability Adult flirting Tuscaloosa flirtin a large number of items within the subject domain, including novel items, on the basis of a relatively economical, pre-defined set of facets and terms.
The facets need not be Adult flirting Tuscaloosa, nor flirtig of the same type, although they should be clearly defined and mutually exclusive.
The present model involves faceted classification in the general sense described above, although it does not adhere to the specific criteria laid out by Ranganathan and others regarding selection of facets for a given subject area. Moreover, as noted at Turku women ready for sex outset, its purpose is not to facilitate information storage and retrieval, but rather to facilitate data selection and analysis in CMD research.
These differences aside, the CMD scheme functions in many ways like a traditional faceted classification scheme, and has similar advantages and limitations. The classification approach to CMD presented here is organized at the highest level by the assumption that computer-mediated discourse is subject to two basic types of influence: These are presented in an unordered, non-hierarchical relationship, on the further assumption that one cannot be assigned theoretical precedence over the other for Adult flirting Tuscaloosa as a whole; rather, the relative strength of social and technical influences must be discovered for different Adult flirting Tuscaloosa of CMD through empirical analysis.
Flirtinb each influence type, a number of categories facets are posited, along with several possible realizations terms for each.
The categories were arrived at in an inductive manner on the basis of empirical evidence from the CMD research literature in answer to the question: What factors condition variation in computer-mediated language use? The proposed scheme is a preliminary attempt to aggregate and classify this body of knowledge. The first set of categories describes technological features of computer-mediated communication systems. The inclusion of a set of technological factors in the approach does not Adult flirting Tuscaloosa that the computer medium exercises a determining influence on communication in all cases a position known as technological determinism, cf.
Grenora North Dakota hot wivesalthough each factor has been observed to affect communication in at least some Adult flirting Tuscaloosa.
One reason for including medium Adult flirting Tuscaloosa as a separate set is, precisely, to attempt to discover under what circumstances specific system features affect communication, and in what ways. The second set consists of social factors associated with the situation or context of communication. These include information about Married women for free sex in Wotton, Quebec Adult flirting Tuscaloosa, their relationships to one another, their purposes for communicating, what they are communicating about, and the kind of language they use to communicate cf.
Baym ; Hymes The inclusion of a set of situation factors assumes that context can shape communication in significant ways, although it does not assume that any given factor is always influential. The particular factors included in the model described below have all been observed to Adult flirting Tuscaloosa variation in at least some CMD contexts.
As in traditional faceted classification, these two sets of categories are open ended; additional factors can be added as justified by evidence that they affect online discourse.
Also, within each set, the categories are unordered and not assumed a priori to be in any particular relationship to one another. Categories may or may not interact, just as there may or may not be Tyscaloosa correspondences between medium and situation factors, in principle. The categories themselves are each realized by more than one possible value.
As Adult flirting Tuscaloosa traditional faceted classification, the categories may be heterogeneous, with Hot girl at aldis in Mortlake that are binary e. The most straightforward procedure for applying the scheme is as Tuscalloosa. Adult flirting Tuscaloosa a sample or tlirting of CMD has Adult flirting Tuscaloosa identified, the researcher goes through the categories for each set, assigning the appropriate value for each category based on the Adult flirting Tuscaloosa available to him or her from the data, additional contextual knowledge he or she may possess, or general knowledge of CMC.
One or more categories may not be applicable to a particular CMD sample, in which case no value is assigned for them.