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Margaret pursued a bbv policy which inevitably favoured Denmark, because it had a greater population than Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 and Sweden combined.

The Hanseatic merchants formed a state within a state in Bergen for generations. Norway slipped ever more to the background under the Oldenburg dynasty nAy There was one revolt under Knut Alvsson in Norway took no part in the events which led to Swedish independence from Denmark in the s. At the same time, a movement to make Magnus King of Sweden proved successful, and both the kings of Sweden and of Denmark were elected to the throne by their respective nobles, Thus, with his election to the throne of Sweden, both Sweden and Badger MN housewives personals were united under King Magnus VII.

Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19

Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 Although the death rate was comparable with the rest of Europe, economic recovery took much longer because of the small, scattered population.

Nlrway was working toward a union of Sweden with Denmark and Norway by having Olaf elected to the Swedish throne. She was on the verge of achieving this goal when Olaf IV suddenly died. On 2 FebruaryNorway followed suit and crowned Margaret. She settled on Eric of Pomeraniagrandson of her Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19.

Thus at an all-Scandinavian meeting held at Kalmar, Erik of Pomerania was crowned king of all Dallas Texas korean horny girls Scandinavian countries. Thus, royal politics resulted in personal unions between the Nordic countrieseventually bringing Norwzy thrones of Norway, Denmarkand Sweden under the control of Queen Margaret when the country entered into Nirway Kalmar Union.

After Sweden broke out of the Kalmar Union inNorway tried to follow suit, [ citation needed ] but the subsequent rebellion was defeated, and Norway remained in a union with Denmark untila total of years.

During the national romanticism of the 19th century, this period was by some bbc to as the "Year Night", since all of the kingdom's royal, intellectual, and administrative power was centred in Copenhagen in Denmark.

England women Norway women - BBC Sport

Meed fact, it was a period of great prosperity and progress for Norway, especially in terms of shipping and foreign trade, and it also secured the country's revival from the demographic catastrophe it suffered Beautiful housewives looking hot sex Fort Madison the Black Death.

Based on the respective natural resources, Denmark—Norway was in fact a very good match since Denmark supported Norway's needs for grain and food supplies, and Norway supplied Denmark with timber, metal, and fish.

With the introduction of Protestantism inthe archbishopric in Trondheim was dissolved, and Norway lost its independence, and effectually became a colony of Denmark. The Church's incomes and possessions were instead redirected to the court Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 Copenhagen. Norway lost the steady stream of pilgrims to the relics of St. Olav at the Nidaros shrine, and with them, much Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 the contact with cultural and economic life in the rest of Europe.

In the north, however, its territory was increased by the acquisition of the northern provinces of Troms and Finnmarkat the expense of Sweden and Russia. After Denmark—Norway was attacked by the United Kingdom at the Battle of Copenhagenit entered into an alliance with Napoleonwith the war leading to dire conditions and mass starvation in As the Danish kingdom Nlrway itself on the losing side init was forced, under terms of the Treaty of Kielto cede Norway to the king of Sweden, while the old Norwegian provinces of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands remained with the Danish crown.

Syttende Mai is also called Norwegian Constitution Day. Norwegian opposition to the great powers' decision to link Norway with Sweden caused the Norwegian—Swedish War to break out as Sweden tried to subdue Norwaay by military means. As Sweden's military was not strong enough to defeat the Norwegian lwdies outright, and Norway's treasury was not large enough to support a protracted war, and as British and Russian navies blockaded the Norwegian coast, [75] the belligerents Norwah forced to negotiate the Convention of Moss.

According to the terms of the convention, Christian Frederik abdicated the Norwegian throne and authorised the Parliament of Norway to make the necessary constitutional amendments to allow for the personal union that Norway was forced to accept. Following the recession caused by the Napoleonic Warseconomic development of Norway remained slow until economic growth began around This period also saw the rise of the Norwegian romantic nationalism neec, as Norwegians sought to define and express a distinct national character.

Charles John Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 a complex man whose long reign extended to He protected the constitution and liberties of Norway and Sweden during the age of Metternich. As such, he was regarded as a liberal monarch for that age. However, he was ruthless in his use of paid informers, the secret police and restrictions on the freedom of the press to put down public movements for reform—especially the Norwegian national independence movement.

Inwomen won the right to inherit property in their own right, just like men. Inthe last trace of keeping unmarried Noreay in the status of minors was Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19. Furthermore, women were then eligible for different occupations, particularly the common school teacher. Voting was limited to officials, property owners, leaseholders and Noraay of incorporated towns.

Still, Norway remained a conservative society. Life in Norway especially economic life lsdies "dominated by the aristocracy of professional men who filled most of the important posts in the central government". Marcus Thrane was a Utopian socialist. He made his appeal to the labouring classes urging a change of social structure "from below upwards.

In just a few months, this society had a membership of and was publishing its own newspaper. Within two years, societies had been organised all over Norway, with a total membership of 20, persons.

The membership was drawn from the lower classes of both urban and rural areas; for the first time these two groups felt they had a common cause. Upon his release, Marcus Thrane attempted unsuccessfully to revitalise his movement, but after the death of his wife, he migrated to the United States. Inall men were granted universal suffragefollowed by all women in Christian Michelsena shipping Rougemont, Quebec girls sex and statesman, and Prime Minister of Norway from Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19played a central role in the peaceful separation of Norway from Sweden on 7 June A national referendum confirmed the people's preference for a monarchy over a republic.

No Norwegian could legitimately claim the throne because none was able to prove relationship to medieval royalty and in European tradition royal or Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 blood is a precondition for laying claim to the throne. Prince Carl of Denmark was unanimously elected king by the Norwegian Parliamentthe first king of a fully independent Norway in years Inthe country welcomed the Free horney girls car show from neighbouring Denmark, his wife Maud of Wales and their young son to re-establish Norway's royal house.

Following centuries of close ties between Norway and Denmark, a prince from the latter was the obvious choice for a European prince who could best relate to the Norwegian people. Throughout the First World WarNorway was in principle a neutral country. In Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19, however, Norway Cunninglus 69 man here to pleasure woman been pressured by the British to hand over increasingly large parts of its large merchant fleet to the British at low rates, as well as to join the trade Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 against Germany.

Norwegian merchant marine ships, often with Norwegian sailors still on board, were then sailing under the British flag and at risk of being sunk by German submarines.

Thus, many Norwegian sailors and ships were lost. Thereafter, the world ranking of the Norwegian merchant navy fell Nlrway fourth place to sixth in the world. Norway also proclaimed its neutrality during the Second World Warbut despite this, it was invaded by German forces on 9 April Although Norway was unprepared for the German surprise attack see: Norwegian armed forces in the north launched an offensive against the German forces in the Battles of Narviknedd they were forced to surrender on 10 June after losing British support which had been diverted to France during the German invasion of France.

King Haakon and the Norwegian government escaped to Rotherhithe in London. Throughout the war they sent inspirational radio speeches and supported clandestine military actions in Norway against the Germans. On the day of the invasion, the leader of the small National-Socialist party Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 SamlingVidkun Quislingtried to seize power, but was forced by the German occupiers to step aside.

Real power was wielded by the leader of the German occupation authority, Reichskommissar Josef Terboven. Quisling, as minister presidentlater formed a collaborationist government under German control. The fraction of neee Norwegian population that supported Germany was traditionally smaller than in Sweden, but greater than is generally appreciated today.

The concept of a "Germanic Union" of member states fit well into their thoroughly nationalist-patriotic ideology. In Junea small group had left Norway following their king to Britain.

This group included 13 ships, five aircraft, and men from the Royal Norwegian Navy.

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By the end of the war, the force had grown to 58 ships and 7, men in service in the Royal Norwegian Navy, 5 squadrons of aircraft including Spitfires, Sunderland flying boats and Mosquitos in the newly formed Norwegian Air Force, and land forces including the Norwegian Independent Company 1 and 5 Troop as well as No.

During the five years of German occupationNorwegians built a resistance movement which fought the German occupation forces with both civil disobedience and armed resistance including the destruction of Norsk Hydro 's heavy water plant and stockpile of heavy water at Vemorkwhich crippled the German nuclear programme see: Norwegian heavy water sabotage.

More important to the Allied war effort, however, was the role of the Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 Merchant Marine. At the time of Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 invasionNorway had the fourth-largest Women want sex Guilford marine fleet in the world.

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It was led by the Norwegian shipping company Nortraship under Norwya Allies throughout the war and took part in every war operation from the evacuation of Dunkirk to the Normandy landings. A ceremony takes place to erect the tree in London's Trafalgar Square.

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Germany secretly established a metrological station in The crew was stuck after the general capitulation in May and were rescued by a Norwegian seal hunter on 4 September. They surrundered to the seal hunter as the last german soldiers to surrender in WW2. From tothe Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament.

The government, led by prime minister Einar Gerhardsenembarked on a program inspired by Keynesian economicsemphasising state financed industrialisation and co-operation between trade unions and employers' organisations.

Many measures of state control of the economy imposed during the war were continued, although the rationing of dairy products was lifted in Ladies looking casual sex MI Saranac 48881, while price control and rationing of housing and cars continued as long as until The wartime alliance with the United Kingdom and the United States was continued in the post-war years.

Although pursuing the goal of a socialist economy, the Labour Party distanced itself from the Communists especially after the Communists' seizure of power in Czechoslovakia inand strengthened its foreign policy and defence policy ties with the US. The first oil was discovered at the small Balder field inproduction only began in Inthe Norwegian Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 founded the State oil company, Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19.

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Oil production did not provide net income until the early s because of the large capital investment that was required to establish the country's petroleum industry. Aroundboth the proportion and absolute number of workers in industry peaked.

Since then labour-intensive industries and services like factory mass production and shipping have largely been Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19.

Norway was twice invited to join the European Union Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19, but ultimately declined to join after referendums that failed by Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 margins in and Norway's first female prime minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland of the Labour party, continued many of the reforms of her conservative predecessor, while backing traditional Labour concerns such as social securityhigh taxes, the industrialisation of nature, and feminism.

By the late s, Norway had paid off its foreign debt and had started accumulating a sovereign wealth fund. Since the s, a divisive question in politics has been how much of the income from petroleum production the government should spend, and how much it should save.

Norway's core territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula ; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 Svalbard are also Pussy xxx Brussels bk of the Kingdom of Norway. Norway comprises the western and northernmost part of Scandinavia in Northern Europe.

Norway is the northernmost of the Nordic countries and if Svalbard is included also the easternmost. The most noticeable of these are the fjords: Hornindalsvatnet is the deepest lake in all Europe. Numerous glaciers are found in Norway. The land is mostly made of hard granite and gneiss rock, but slatesandstoneand limestone are also common, and the lowest elevations contain marine deposits.

Because of the Gulf Stream and Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 westerlies, Norway experiences higher temperatures and more precipitation than expected at such northern latitudes, especially along the coast. The mainland experiences four distinct seasons, with colder winters and less precipitation inland. The Lady wants real sex WV Ballard 24918 part has a mostly maritime Subarctic climatewhile Svalbard has an Arctic tundra climate.

Because of the large latitudinal range of the country and the varied topography and climate, Norway has a larger number of different habitats than almost any other European country.

There are approximately 60, species in Norway and adjacent waters excluding bacteria and virus. The Norwegian Shelf large marine ecosystem is considered highly productive. The southern and western parts of Norway, fully exposed to Atlantic storm fronts, experience more precipitation and have milder winters than the eastern and far northern parts. Areas to the east of the coastal mountains are in a rain shadowand have lower rain and snow totals than the west.

The lowlands around Oslo have the warmest and sunniest summers, but also cold weather Meet sexy women Clichy snow in wintertime. Because of Norway's high latitudethere are large seasonal variations in daylight. From late May to late July, the sun never completely descends beneath the horizon Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 areas north of the Arctic Circle hence Norway's description as the "Land of the Midnight sun "and the rest of the country experiences up to 20 hours of daylight per day.

Conversely, from late November to late January, the sun never rises above the horizon in the north, and daylight hours are very short in the rest of the country. The coastal climate of Norway is exceptionally mild compared with areas on similar latitudes Bbw one night stands Madison Wisconsin in the world, with the Gulf Stream passing directly offshore the northern areas of the Atlantic coast, continuously warming the region in the winter.

The Gulf Stream has this effect only on the northern parts of Norway, not in the south, despite what is commonly believed. The northern coast of Norway would thus Fun Indianapolis companion wanted ice-covered if not for the Gulf Stream.

Oslo has more of a continental climate, similar to Sweden's. The mountain ranges have subarctic and tundra climates. There is also very high rainfall in areas exposed to the Atlantic, such as Bergen. Oslo, in comparison, is dry, being in a rain shadow. Finnmarksvidda and the interior valleys of Troms and Nordland also receive less than millimetres 12 inches annually.

Longyearbyen is the driest place in Norway with millimetres 7.

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Further inland in southeastern Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 northern Norway, the subarctic climate Dfc dominates; this is especially true for areas in the rain shadow of the Scandinavian Mountains. Some of the inner valleys of Oppland get so little precipitation annually, thanks to the rain shadow effect, that they meet the requirements for dry-summer subarctic climates Dsc. In higher altitudes, close to the coasts of southern and western Norway, one can find the rare subpolar oceanic climate Cfc.

This climate is also common in Northern Norway, but there usually Horny weman Lenox United States lower altitudes, all the way down to sea level.

The total number of species include 16, species of insects probably 4, more species yet to be described20, species of algae1, species of lichen1, species of Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 192, species of vascular plantsup to 7, species of fungispecies of birds species nesting in Norway90 species of mammals, 45 fresh-water species of fish, salt-water species of fish, 1, species of fresh-water invertebratesand 3, species of salt-water invertebrates.

The red list of encompasses 4, species.

Seventeen species are listed mainly because they are endangered on a global scale, such as the European beavereven if the population in Norway is not seen as endangered. The number of threatened and near-threatened species equals to 3,; it includes fungi Woman seeking casual sex Cash, many of which are closely associated with the small remaining areas of old-growth forests, [] 36 bird species, and 16 species of mammals.

In Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19, 2, species were listed as endangered or vulnerable; of these were listed as vulnerable VUAny ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 endangered ENand species as critically endangered CRamong which were the grey wolfthe Arctic fox healthy population on Svalbard and the pool frog.

The largest predator in Norwegian waters is the sperm whaleand the largest fish is the basking shark. The largest predator on land is the polar bearwhile the brown bear is the largest predator on the Norwegian mainland. The largest land animal on the mainland is the elk American English: The elk in Norway is known for Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 size and strength and is often called skogens konge"king of the forest". Attractive and dramatic scenery and landscape are found throughout Norway.

National Geographic has listed the Norwegian fjords as the world's top tourist attraction. The index notes over-exploitation of fisheries, but not Norway's whaling or oil exports. Norway is considered to be one of the most developed democracies and states of justice in the world.

SinceNorway has been classified as the world's most democratic country by the Democracy Index. According to the Constitution of Norwaywhich was adopted on 17 May [] and inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence and French Revolution of andAny ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19, Norway is a unitary constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, wherein the King of Norway is the head Bbw curvy girl looking state and the prime minister is the head of government.

Power is separated among the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, as defined by the Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. The monarch Lonely wants sex Madison retains executive power. But following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial, [] such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government.

Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the Norwegian Armed Forcesand serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity. In practice, the Prime Minister exercises the executive powers. Constitutionally, legislative power is vested with both the government and the Parliament of Norway, but the latter is the supreme legislature and a unicameral body.

The Parliament Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 pass a law by simple Pineal Lake of the representatives, who are elected on the basis of proportional representation from 19 constituencies for four-year terms. The Parliament of Norway, called the Stortinget meaning Grand Assemblyratifies national treaties developed by the executive branch. It can impeach members of the government if their acts are declared unconstitutional.

If an indicted suspect is impeached, Parliament has the power Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 remove the person from office. The position of prime ministerNorway's head of government, is allocated to the member of Parliament who can obtain the confidence of a majority in Parliament, usually the current leader of the largest political party or, more effectively, through a coalition of parties. A single Stuck in Rottnest Island but looking as well generally does not have sufficient political power in terms of the number of seats to form a government on its own.

Norway has often been ruled by minority governments. The prime minister nominates the cabinet, traditionally drawn from members of the same political party or parties in the Storting, making up the government. The PM organises the executive government and exercises its power as vested by the Constitution.

Formerly, the PM had to have more than half the members of cabinet be members of the Church of Norway, meaning at least ten out of the 19 ministries. This rule was however removed in The issue of separation of church and state in Norway has been Wife swapping in Menan ID controversial, as many people believe it is time to change this, to reflect the growing diversity in the population.

A part of this is the evolution of the public school subject Christianity, a required subject since Even the state's loss in a battle at the European Court of Human Rights at Strasbourg [] in did not Women pay men for sex chat the matter. As of 1 Januarythe Church of Norway is a separate legal entity, and no longer a branch of the civil service.

Through the Council of Statea privy council presided over by the monarch, the prime minister and the cabinet meet at the Royal Palace and formally consult the Monarch.

All government bills need the formal approval by the monarch before and after introduction to Parliament. The Council reviews and approves all of the monarch's actions as head of state. Although all government and parliamentary acts are decided beforehand, the privy council is an example of symbolic gesture the king retains.

Members of the Storting are directly elected from party-lists proportional representation in nineteen plural-member constituencies in a national Lonely lady looking nsa Summerville system.

Sinceboth the Conservative Party and the Progress Party have won numerous seats in the Parliament, but not sufficient in the general election to overthrow the coalition. Commentators have pointed to the poor co-operation between the opposition parties, including the Liberals and the Christian Democrats. Jens Stoltenbergthe leader of the Labour Party, continued to have the necessary majority through his multi-party alliance to continue as PM until In national elections in Septembervoters ended eight years of Labor rule.

Coming at a time when Norway's economy is in good condition with low unemployment, the rise of the right appeared to be based on other issues. Erna Solberg became prime minister, the second female prime minister after Brundtland and the first conservative prime minister since Syse. Solberg said her win was "a historic election victory for the right-wing parties".

Norway, a unitary stateis Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 into eighteen first-level administrative counties fylke. The counties are administrated through directly elected county assemblies who elect the County Governor. Additionally, the King and government are represented in every county by a fylkesmannwho effectively acts as a Governor.

The counties are then sub-divided into second-level municipalities kommunerwhich in turn are administrated by directly elected municipal council, headed by a mayor and a small executive cabinet. The capital of Oslo is considered both a county and a municipality. Norway has two integral overseas territories: Jan Mayen and Svalbardthe only developed island in the archipelago of the same name, located miles away to the north.

There are three Antarctic Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 Subantarctic dependencies: On most maps, there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land and the South Pole until 12 June when Norway formally annexed that area.

In most cases, the city borders are coterminous Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 the borders of their respective municipalities. Often, Norwegian city municipalities include large areas that are not developed; for example, Oslo municipality contains large forests, located north and south-east of the 33 yr old black male seeking Hampton, and over half of Bergen municipality consists of mountainous areas.

Norway uses a civil law system where laws are created and amended in Parliament and the system regulated through the Courts of justice of Norway. It consists of the Supreme Court of 20 permanent judges and a Chief Justiceappellate courtscity and district courtsand conciliation councils.

While the Prime Minister nominates Supreme Court Justices for office, their nomination must be approved by Parliament and formally confirmed by the Monarch in the Council of State. Usually, judges attached to regular courts are formally appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Courts' strict and formal mission is to regulate the Norwegian judicial system, interpret the Constitution, and as such implement the legislation adopted by Parliament.

In its judicial reviews, it monitors the legislative and executive branches to ensure that they comply with provisions of enacted legislation. The law is enforced in Norway Sexy women want sex Leesville the Wives seeking sex OR Prairie city 97869 Police Service.

Norway abolished the Nprway penalty for regular criminal acts in Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 legislature abolished the death penalty for high treason in war and war-crimes in In general, the Kettering female sex addicts and institutional framework in Norway is characterised by a high degree of transparency, accountability and integrity, and the Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 and the occurrence of corruption are very low.

However, there are some isolated cases showing that some municipalities have abused their position in public procurement processes. Norwegian prisons are humane, rather than tough, with emphasis on rehabilitation. Norway maintains Mature women to fuck in Mintaro in 82 countries. Norway issued applications for accession to the European Union EU and its predecessors inandrespectively.

While Denmark, Sweden and Finland obtained membership, the Norwegian electorate rejected the treaties of accession in referenda in and After the referendum, Norway maintained its membership in the European Economic Area EEAan arrangement granting the country access to the internal market of the Union, on the bbx that Norway implements the Union's pieces of legislation which are deemed relevant of which there were approximately seven thousand by [] Successive Norwegian governments have, sincerequested participation in parts of the EU's co-operation that go beyond the provisions of the EEA agreement.

Non-voting participation by Norway has been granted in, for instance, the Union's Common Security and Defence Policythe Schengen Agreementand the European Defence Agency Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19, as well as 19 separate programmes. Norway contributes to international development. In addition, it participated in the s brokering of the Oslo Accordsan attempt to resolve the Israeli—Palestinian conflict.

The Norwegian Armed Forces numbers about 25, personnel, including civilian employees. According to mobilisation plans, full mobilisation produces oNrway 83, combatant personnel.

neee Norway has conscription including 6—12 months of training ; [] inthe country became the first in Europe and NATO to draft women as well Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 men. However, due to less need for conscripts after the Cold War ended ,adies the break-up of the Soviet Union, few people have to serve if they are not motivated. The military of Norway is divided into the following branches: Today, Horny Verona ladies ranks as the second-wealthiest country in the world in monetary value, with the largest capital reserve neex capita of any nation.

Foreign Policy magazine ranks Norway last in its Failed States Index forjudging Norway to be Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 world's most well-functioning and stable country. The Norwegian economy is an example of a mixed economya prosperous capitalist welfare state and social democracy country featuring a combination Bartonsville-PA adult matchmaker free market activity and large state ownership in certain key sectors.

Public health care in Norway is free after an annual charge of around kroner for those over 16and parents have 46 weeks paid [] parental leave. The state income derived from natural resources includes a significant contribution from petroleum bbv.

Norway has an unemployment rate of 4. The egalitarian values of Norwegian society have kept the wage difference between the lowest paid worker and Manchester adult ladies dating CEO of most companies as much less than in comparable western economies. The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector Statoilhydroelectric energy production Statkraftaluminium production Norsk Hydrothe largest Norwegian bank DNBand telecommunication provider Telenor.

When non-listed companies are included, the state has even higher share in ownership mainly from direct oil licence ownership. Norway is a Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 shipping nation and has the world's 6th largest merchant fleetwith 1, Web cam sext fun merchant vessels.

Norway is Ajy highly integrated member of most sectors of the EU internal market. Some sectors, such as agriculture, oil and fish, are not wholly covered by the EEA Treaty. Norway has also acceded to the Schengen Agreement ladids several other intergovernmental agreements among the EU member states. The country Adult singles dating in Newman, California (CA). richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum, hydropower lades, fish, forestsand minerals.

Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the s, which led to a boom in the economy. Norway has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the world in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population.

Norway is the first country which banned cutting of trees deforestationin order to prevent rain forests from vanishing. Crops, that are typically linked to forests' destruction are timber, soy, palm oil and beef. Now Norway has to find Nodway way to provide these essential products without exerting negative influence on its environment. Norway is also the world's second-largest exporter of fish in value, after China. The most valuable minerals are calcium carbonate limestonebuilding stone, nepheline syeniteolivineiron, titaniumand nickel.

Inthe Norwegian government established the sovereign wealth fund "Government Neec Fund — Global"which would be funded with oil revenues, neex taxes, dividends, sales revenues and licensing fees. This was intended to reduce overheating in Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 economy from oil revenues, minimise uncertainty from volatility in oil price, and provide a cushion to compensate for expenses associated with the ageing of the population.

Finally, the government controls licensing of exploration and production of fields. The fund invests in developed financial markets outside Norway. It is the largest neex wealth fund in the world.

As the Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 markets tumbled in Septemberthe fund was able to ladiez more shares at low prices. In this way, the losses incurred by the Norqay turmoil was recuperated by November Other nations with economies based on natural resources, such as Russia, are trying to learn from Norway by establishing similar funds. The investment choices of the Ladis fund are directed by ethical guidelines ; for example, the fund is not allowed to invest in companies that produce parts for nuclear weapons.

Norway's highly transparent investment scheme [] is lauded by the international community. Inthe government sold one-third of the state-owned oil company Statoil in an IPO. The next year, the main telecom supplier, Telenorwas listed on Oslo Stock Exchange. SinceAny ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 growth has been rapid, pushing unemployment down to levels not seen since the Norwah s unemployment laeies The international financial crisis has primarily affected the industrial sector, but unemployment has remained low, and was at 3.

In contrast to Norway, Sweden had substantially higher actual and projected unemployment numbers as a result of the recession. Thousands of mainly young Swedes migrated to Norway for work during these years, which is easy, as the labour market and social security systems overlap in the Nordic Countries. In Noorway first quarter ofthe GNP of Norway surpassed Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 for the first time in history, although its population is half the size.

Between andNorwegian companies drilled oil wells, mostly in the North Sea. Oil fields not yet in production phase include: Due to the low population density, narrow shape and long coastlines of Norway, its public transport is less developed than in many European countries, especially outside the major cities. The country has long-standing water transport traditions, but the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications has in recent years implemented rail, road, and air transport through numerous subsidiaries to Nogway the country's infrastructure.

The railways transported Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19, passengers 2, million passenger-kilometres and 24, tonnes of cargo 3, million tonne-kilometres. The most important national routes are part of the European route scheme. The two most prominent are the E6 going north-south through the entire country, and the E39which follows the West Coast.

National and county roads are managed by the Norwegian Bvc Roads Administration. Norway has the 1 largest registered stock of plug-in electric vehicles per capita. Of the 98 airports in Norway, [] 52 are public, [] and 46 are operated by the state-owned Avinor. The central gateway to Norway by air is Oslo Airport, Gardermoen. Norwegian and Sami are the two official languages of Norway. Both are used padies public administration, schools, churches, and media.

All Norwegian dialects are mutually intelligible, although listeners with limited exposure to dialects other than their own Searching for a passionate woman Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 to understand certain phrases and pronunciations in some other dialects.

Several Uralic Sami languages are spoken and written throughout the country, especially in the north, by some members of the Sami people. Estimates suggest that about one third of the Norwegian Sami speak a Sami language. Today the majority of ethnic Kven have little or no knowledge of the language. According to the Kainun institutti"The typical modern Kven is a Norwegian-speaking Norwegian who knows his genealogy.

Some supporters have also advocated making Norwegian Sign Language an official language Free sexy xxx match huntington beach the country. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Norwegian language was subject to strong political and cultural controversies. This Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 to the development of Nynorsk in the 19th century and to the formation of alternative spelling standards in the 20th century.

Norwegian is similar to the other languages in Scandinavia: All three languages are to a degree mutually intelligible and can be, and commonly are, employed in communication among inhabitants of the Scandinavian countries.

As a result of the bb within the Nordic Councilinhabitants of all Nordic countries, including Iceland and Finlandhave the right to communicate with Norwegian authorities in their own language. Students who are children of immigrant parents are encouraged to learn the Norwegian language. The Norwegian government offers language instructional courses for immigrants wishing to obtain Norwegian citizenship. With increasing concern about assimilating immigrants, since 1 Septemberthe government has required that an applicant for Norwegian citizenship give evidence of proficiency in either Norwegian or in one of the Sami languages, or give proof of having attended classes in Norwegian for hours, or meet the language ladie for university studies in Norway that is, by being proficient in one of the Scandinavian languages.

The primary foreign language nefd in Norwegian schools is English, considered an international language since the post-WWII era.

The majority of the population is fairly fluent Teen pussy in Talok Nipa English, especially those born after Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 War II.

German, French and Spanish are also commonly taught as second or, more often, third languages. Russian, Japanese, Italian, Latinand rarely Chinese Mandarin are offered in some Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19, mostly in the cities.

Traditionally, English, German and French were considered the main foreign languages in Norway. These languages, for instance, were used on Norwegian passports until the Commerce OK bi horny wives, and university students have a general right to use these languages when submitting their theses.

Norway's population was 5, people in October Norwegians are an ethnic North Germanic people. Since Noway late Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 century, Norway has attracted immigrants from southern and central Europe, the Mideast, Africa, Asia and beyond.

Inof the totalwith ladiws background,had Norwegian citizenship Immigrants have settled in all Norwegian municipalities. The Sami people are indigenous to the Far North and have traditionally inhabited central and northern parts of Norway and Sweden, as well as areas in northern Finland and in Russia on hbc Kola Freshwater bear problem lady. Another national minority are the Kven peopledescendants Anj Finnish-speaking people who migrated to northern Norway from the 18th up to the 20th century.

From the 19th century up to the s, the Norwegian government Norwxy to assimilate both the Sami and the Kven, encouraging them to adopt the majority language, culture and religion. Particularly in the 19th century, when economic conditions were difficult in Norway, tens of thousands of people migrated to the United States and Canada, ladles they could work and buy land in frontier ladids.

Many went to the Midwest Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 Pacific Northwest. Inaccording to the US Nowray Bureau, almost 4. On 1 January [update]the number of immigrants or children of two immigrants residing in Norway was , or Yearly immigration has increased since While yearly net immigration in — was on average 13, it increased to 37, between andand in net immigration reached 47, Inthe immigrant community which includes immigrants and children born in Norway of immigrant parents grew by 55, a record high.

Pakistani Norwegians are the largest non-European minority group in Norway.

Leah Williamson scores the penalty that sees England's women through that the final few minutes of England's match with Norway should be. The class in Haugesund, in west Norway, is no longer just about rape prevention. they will hopefully have the confidence to come and ask us for advice if they need to." Leda and the Swan fresco in Pompeii, 19 Nov Women's International Friendlies scores, results and fixtures on BBC Sport, including live football scores, goals and All times are UK and subject to change .

Most of their 32, members live in and around Oslo. Sweet wants nsa Nottingham Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 and Somali immigrant populations have increased significantly in recent years. The fastest growing immigrant groups in in absolute numbers were from Poland, Lithuania and Sweden. Separation of church and state happened significantly later in Norway than in most of Europe and is not yet complete.

Inthe Norwegian parliament voted to grant the Church of Norway greater autonomy, [] a decision which was confirmed in a constitutional amendment on 21 May Until parliamentary officials were required to be members of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Norway, and at least half of all government ministers had to be a member of the state church.

'Major breakthrough' in Norway's year-old Isdal woman mystery - BBC News

Norwy state church, the Church of Norway's clergy Adult personal Mexico viewed as state employees, and the central and regional church administrations were part of the state administration. Members of the Royal family are required to be members of the Lutheran church. On 1 JanuaryNorway made the church independent of the state, but retained the Church's status as the "people's church".

Most Norwegians are registered at baptism as members of the Church of Norwaywhich has been Norway's state church since its establishment. In recent years the church has been granted increasing internal autonomy, but it retains its special Norwway status and other special ties to the state, and the constitution requires that the reigning monarch must laries a member and states that the country's values are based on its Christian and Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 heritage.

Many remain in the church to participate Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 the community and practices such as baptismconfirmationmarriage and burial rites.

Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19

InBoredneed some Salt Lake City fun In the early s, studies estimated that between ned. The Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic Lutheran congregations in Norway have about 27, members in total. Among non-Christian religions, Islam is the largest, withregistered membersand probably fewer thanin total. Sikhs first oNrway to Norway in the early s. The troubles in Punjab after Operation Blue Star and riots committed against Sikhs in India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi led to an increase in Sikh refugees moving to Norway.

Drammen also has a sizeable population of Sikhs; the largest gurdwara ladie north Europe was built in Lier. There are eleven Buddhist organisations, grouped under the Buddhistforbundet organisation, with slightly over 14, members, [] which make up 0.

The Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 religion has slightly more than 1, adherents. It is associated with the huge immigration from Eritrea and Ethiopiaand to a lesser extent from Central and Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries.

Other fast-growing religions were the Roman Catholic Church As in other Scandinavian countries, the Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 Norse followed a form of native Germanic paganism known as Norse paganism. By the end of the 11th century, when Norway had been Christianisedthe indigenous Norse religion and practices were prohibited. Remnants of the native religion and beliefs of Norway survive today in the form of names, referential names of cities and locations, the days of the week, and other parts of everyday language.

Foreningen Forn Sed was formed in and has been recognised by the Norwegian government. The Sami minority retained their shamanistic religion Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 into the 18th century, when most converted to Christianity under the influence of Dano-Norwegian Lutheran missionaries. Although some insist that "indigenous Sami religion had effectively been eradicated,' [] athropologist Gutorm Gjessing 's Changing Lapps argues that the Samis "were outwardly and to all practical purposes converted to Christianity, but at the subconscious and unconscious Crystal falls MI bi horny wives, the shamistic frenzy survived, more or less latent, only awaiting the necessary stimulus to break out into the open.

Five percent gave no response. From the s, improvements in public health occurred as a result of development in several areas such as social and living conditionschanges in disease and medical outbreaks, establishment of the health care system, and emphasis on public health matters. Vaccination and increased treatment opportunities with antibiotics resulted in great improvements within the Norwegian population. Improved hygiene and better nutrition were factors that contributed to improved health.

The disease pattern in Norway changed from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases and chronic diseases as cardiovascular disease. Inequalities and social differences are still present in public health in Norway today. In the Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 mortality rate was 2. For girls it was 2. Higher education in Norway is offered by a range of seven universitiesfive specialised colleges, 25 university colleges as well as a range of private colleges. Public education is virtually free, regardless of nationality.

The ultimate responsibility for the education lies with the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Norwegian farm culture continues to play a role in contemporary Norwegian culture. In My Williamstown wife sex 19th century, it inspired a strong romantic nationalistic movement, which is still visible in the Norwegian language and media. Norwegian culture blossomed with nationalist efforts to achieve an independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music.

This continues today in the performing arts and as a result of government support Hot fair and Cyprus exhibitions, cultural projects and artwork. Norway has been considered a progressive country, which has adopted legislation and policies Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 support women's rights, minority rights, and LGBT rights.

From the s, gender equality also came high on the state agenda, with the establishment of a public body to promote gender equality, which evolved into the Gender Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud. Civil society organisations also continue to play an important role, and the women's rights organisations are today organised in the Norwegian Women's Lobby umbrella organisation. Inthe Norwegian constitution was amended to grant absolute primogeniture to the Norwegian throne, meaning that the eldest child, regardless of gender, takes precedence in the line of succession.

As it was not retroactive, the current successor to the throne is the eldest son of the King, rather than his eldest child. The Norwegian constitution Article 6 states that Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 those born before the year it shall The Sami people have for centuries been the subject Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 discrimination and abuse by the dominant cultures in Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 and Russia, those countries claiming possession of Sami lands.

In regard to LGBT rights, Norway was the first country in the world to enact an anti-discrimination law protecting the rights of gays and lesbians. InNorway became the second country to legalise civil union partnerships for same-sex couples, and on 1 January Norway became the sixth country to grant full marriage equality to same-sex couples.

As a promoter of human rights, Norway has held the annual Oslo Freedom Forum conference, a gathering described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum. The Norwegian cinema has received international recognition.

The documentary film Kon-Tiki won an Academy Award. InArne Skouen 's Nine Lives was nominated, but failed to win. Pinchcliffe Grand Prixan animated feature film directed by Ivo Caprino. The film was released in and is based on characters from Adult want real sex LA Mansura 71350 cartoonist Kjell Aukrust.

It is the most widely seen Norwegian film of all time.

Nils Gaup 's Pathfinderthe story of the Samiwas nominated for an Oscar. Since the s, the film industry has thrived, producing up to 20 feature films each year. It included a lladies battle in the snow. The attraction and the film ceased their operations on 5 October The classical music of the romantic composers Bbx GriegRikard Nordraak and Johan Svendsen is internationally known, as is the modern music of Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 Nordheim.

BBC News - Norway country profile

Norwegian black metala form of rock music in Norwayhas been an influence in world music since the late 20th century. Since the s, Norway's export of black metala lo-fi, dark and raw form of heavy metalhas been developed by such bands as EmperorDarkthroneGorgorothMayhemBurzumand Immortal.

Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 recently bands such as EnslavedKvelertakDimmu Borgir and Satyricon have evolved the genre into the present day while still garnering worldwide fans. Controversial events associated with the black metal movement in the early s included several church burnings and two prominent murder cases.

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The jazz scene in Norway is thriving. Norway has a strong folk music tradition which remains popular to this day. In the s and s, the Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 maintained its popularity domestically, and has remained successful outside Norway, especially in Germany, Switzerland, France, and Brazil.

In recent years, various Ladiea songwriters and production teams have contributed to the music of other international artists. Lene Marlin has written songs for Rihanna and Lovebugs. Norway enjoys Wife want hot sex Roscommon music festivals throughout the year, all over the country.

Norway is the host of one of the world's biggest extreme sport festivals with music, Ekstremsportveko —a festival held annually in Voss. Oslo used to have a summer parade similar to the German Love Parade.

Even in its first year, "Musikkens Dag" gathered thousands of people and artists in the streets of Oslo.

The arrival of Christianity around the year brought Norway into contact with European mediaeval learning, hagiography and history writing. Sexy women wants casual sex Mason City with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence, this influenced the literature written in the late 12th and early 13th centuries.

Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union —with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg. During the union neeed Denmark, the government imposed using only written Danish, which decreased the Nirway of Norwegian literature. Two major events precipitated a major Anj in Norwegian literature: Secondly, seized by the spirit of revolution following the American and French revolutions, the Norwegians created their first Constitution in By the late 19th century, in the Golden Age of Norwegian nfed, the so-called "Great Four" emerged: Kielland's novels and short stories are mostly naturalistic.

Although an important contributor to early romantic nationalism, especially Peer GyntAnny Ibsen is better known for his pioneering realistic dramas such as The Wild Duck and A Doll's House. They caused an AAny because of his candid portrayals of the middle classes, complete with infidelity, unhappy marriages, and corrupt businessmen. Now, it includes discussions around communicating with the opposite sex, boundaries, domestic violence, and what to do if you witness a sexual assault. It lasts four hours, and is not compulsory - Norwag many refugees take it as part of a series of courses offered to new arrivals, including language courses and help with finding work.

Those from bigger towns and cities say it would be perfectly normal to see a woman dress like this, others are not so sure. Bbbc class conversation moves ladiss to rape between a married couple - one insists a married man cannot, as far as the law is concerned, rape his wife, but he is told by others in the group that he can. Preben Svendsen, who runs the refugee centre, does not think the classes stigmatised Nlrway men, as Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 show most rapes in Norway are not committed by migrants.

Many say they wanted Anyy just safety, food and shelter in Norway, but an active life with meaningful relationships. They do not see the courses as rape prevention - Chihuahua horny teen fucking take them because they hope they might make it easier to find a partner and ease what Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 often a very solitary existence. Asked if he understood why some Europeans thought he should not be dating local women, he replies: The problem is if I do something bad with her.

And then you know how people will talk about us, as refugees. I hope and I wish Any ladies need bbc 19 Norway 19 people speak with me about my culture. Not only give bad opinions. We are all human beings.

The Victoria Derbyshire programme is broadcast on weekdays between Related Topics Europe migrant crisis.